Q What is the relation of obesity with renal stone formation
A Obesity causes changes in urine chemistry reflecting increased calcium, uric acid, sodium, and decreased citrate in the urine.
Calcium oxalate and uric acid stones are more common in obese.
ph of the urine decreases in obese. This is because insulin resistance at the cellular level results in hyperinsulinemia, which in turn causes defects in renal production of ammonia, lowering the pH of the urine.
Q How long should one wait before advising surgery for renal stones
A 1 month is the average time one should wait before advising surgery. After one month the rate of complications such as strictures develop